Yüklemi nitelerler s I’m going home tomorrow. (Yarın eve gideceğim)s I’m working hard. (Çok sıkı çalışıyorum) Sıfatı nitelerler s I’m dreadfully tired. (Korkunç yorgunum) Başka bir zarfı nitelerler s Don’t speak so quickly. (O kadar hızlı konuşma!) Tüm bir cümleyi nitelerler s Perhaps, we’ll see you again next week.s Economically, this situation is impossible.
Adverbs of Time again early late now sometime then today tomorrow tonight yesterday subsequenlty afterwards …onwards
- Adverbs of TIME: Kendi içlerinde üçe ayırmak mümkündür. Kesin zaman (certain time), süreç (duration) ve sıklık (frequency) zarfları
Adverbs of CERTAIN TIME: Eylemin zamanını belirtirler. Sorusu When?
Position: Zaman belirten zarflar genellikle cümle sonunda yer alırlar. Ancak pek çok zarfta olduğu gibi çeşitli amaç ve kullanımlar için cümle başı veya sonunda da bulunurlar.
- Later Goldilocks ate some porridge. (the time is more important)
- Goldilocks later ate some porridge. (this is more formal, like a policeman's report)
- Goldilocks ate some porridge later. (this is neutral, no particular emphasis)
NOTE: Prep + Noun kalıbıyla da zaman zarfları (adverbial phrase) yapılmaktadır.
- She tries to get back before dark.
Adverbs of Duration For years In time Recently Lately Since 1996 yet still All day
Adverbs of DURATION: Eylemin sürecini belirtirler. How long?
Position: Süreç belirten zarflar sıklıkla cümle sonunda yer alırlar.
- She stayed in the Bears' house all day.
- My mother has lived in France for a year / since 1996.
Ancak still ortada yer alır. Negatif cümlelerde yardımcı yüklemle birleştiğinde yardımcı yüklemden de önce gelir.
- He is still working
- He still hasn’t
Any more ve any longer cümle sonunda gelirken no longer ana yüklemden önce gelir.
- She doesn’t live here any more/any longer.
- She no longer lives here.
Adverbs of Frequency always usually generally often frequently sometimes occasionally rarely hardly scarcely hardly ever seldom never ever annually daily weekly once a year
Adverbs of FREQUENCY: Sıklık belirten zarflar. Sorusu How often?
Position: Genellikle ortada yer alırlar ama vurgu için başta veya sonda da bulunurlar:
- Often the wind blows less strongly at night.
sonda (end): Nesne yoksa hemen yüklemden sonra, nesne varsa nesneden sonra gelir.
- He speaks seldom.
- I visit her frequently / three times a week.
ortada (mid): Yardımcı fiilden sonra, ana fiilden önce. “to be” fiilinden sonra. Olumsuzlarda not’tan sonra.
- I have often wondered about that.
- We are always on time.
- He rarely makes a mistake.
- Does he not usually know the answers?
NOTE 1: Sıklık belirten zaman zarfları daha çok ortada yer alırlar ama sık sık vurgu için sona alınırlar.
- She regularly visits France.
- She visits France regularly.
Negative Adverbs barely hardly never not rarely scarcely seldom little ever nowhere
NOTE 2: daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, annually etc. mid-position’da yer almazlar.
- This magazine is published monthly.
- He visits his mother once a week.
NOTE 3: Bu zarfların bir kısmı negative adverbs olarak da sınıflanmaktadır. Bunlar dahil oldukları cümleye negative anlam kazandırırlar. Tag question pozitif olur.
- She hardly ever goes to the movies, does she?
NOTE 4: Negative zarflar cümle başına gelerek yapıyı devrik hale getirirler. (bkz. INVERSION)
- I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.
- She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.
NOTE 5: Always emir cümleleri hariç cümle başında yer almaz.
- Always lock the door when you go out.
ADVERB ORDER: Zamandan bahseden üç zarf aynı cümlede kullanılırsa tercih edilen sıra: (1) 'how long' (2) 'how often' (3) 'when' olmaktadır:
- I work (1) for five hours (2) every day
- The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.
- I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.
- She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week (3) last year.
Adverbs of Manner carefully correctly eagerly easily fast loudly patiently quickly quietly well
- Adverbs of MANNER: Eylemin nasıl gerçekleştiğini belirtir. Sorusu How?
Position: Durum belirten bu zarflar genellikle yüklem sonunda yer alır. Geçişsiz yüklemlerde (intransitive) hemen yüklemden sonra, yüklem nesne almışsa nesneden sonra gelir. Nesneden önce preposition varsa yüklemden sonra araya yerleşebilir.
- She spoke softly, loudly, aggressively. (after the Vi)
- He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)
- The child ran happily towards his mother. (after the Vt, before the prep)
- The child ran towards his mother happily. (after the object)
Ancak nesne almış yüklemlerde vurgu için ortada veya cümle başında kullanıldığı olur.
- He gently woke the sleeping woman.
- Slowly she picked up the knife.
NOTE: Cümlede birden fazla yüklem olduğunda durum zarflarının konumu hayati olmaktadır.
- She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick)
- She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick)
- He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet)
- He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet)
Adverbs of Location ahead back forward here high low near outside somewhere there in Paris backwards
- Adverbs of PLACE: Eylemin nerede veya nereye doğru gerçekleştiğini belirtir. Sorusu Where?
Position: Yer belirten zarflar genellikle yüklemden sonra gelirler. Doğal olarak yüklem nesne almışsa nesneden sonra gelirler.
- I looked everywhere
- John looked away, up, down, around...
- They built a house nearby
NOTE 1: 'Here' ve 'there' konum ve yön (be, come, go etc.) belirten yüklemlerle kullanıldıklarında ve özneleri zamir değilse (it, she, he etc.) cümle başında yer alırlar. (bkz INVERSION)
- Here comes the bus. (followed by the verb)
- Here it is! (followed by the pronoun)
- There she goes! (followed by the pronoun)
NOTE 2: 'Here' ve 'there' çeşitli prepositionlardan önce gelerek pek çok yaygın adverbial phrases oluştururlar. down here, down there; over here, over there; under here, under there;
up here, up there
- It's in(Burada, içerde)
- When did you go over there? (Oraya ne zaman gittin?)
NOTE 3: Çoğu yer zarfı aynı zamanda preposition olarak kullanılırlar: about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round, through, under, up.
- John looked away / up / down / around(around=adv)
- Please stay around the house. (around=prep)
NOTE 4: -wards ile biten zarflar hareket veya yön belirtirler: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards, westwards, homewards, onwards etc.
BE CAREFUL! 'Towards' bir prepositiondur, bir adverb değil, dolayısıyla her zaman bir isim veya zamirden önce gelmelidir.
- He walked towards the car.
- She ran towards me.
NOTE 5: prep+noun yapısıyla oluşmuş pek çok zarf hem yer (location) hem de yön-hareket (movement) belirttiklerinden başlarına yön (to, towards etc) veya yer (at, in, on) prepositionları almazlar. ‘Home’ da önüne to almaz: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoors
- The child went indoors.
- He lived and worked abroad.
NOTE 6: Pek çok isim yön veya yer belirten bir preposition sonrasında gelerek yer zarfı (adverbial phrase of place) oluşturur.
- Jack lives in London. So, I need to go to London.
Sentential Adverbs basically naturally evidently wisely honestly frankly obviously especially particularly especially essentially
- SENTENTIAL Adverbs: Bu zarflar cümle başında yer alıp tüm cümleyi nitelerler. Cümleden virgülle ayrılırlar.
- Basically, I’m in favour of more radical reforms.
- Honestly, he didn’t get the money. (sentential)
- He didn’t get the money honestly. (manner)
- VIEWPOINT Adverbs: Bu zarflar da cümle başında yer alır. Olaya hangi açıdan bakıldığını belirtir. Sorusu From which point ow view?
Viewpoint Adverbs politically scientificallypsychologically
- Politically, this is a horrible decision. (From the political point of view, this is a horrible decision.)
- Economically, Turkey is getting wealthier. (From the economical point of view, Turkey is getting wealthier)
Restricting Adverbs only justmerely solely exclusively purely simply
Adverbs of Certainty certainly probably definitely surely undoubtedly
- Adverbs of CERTAINTY: Olaydan ne kadar emin olduğumuzu belirten zarflardır. Orta-konumda yer alırlar. Başa çekildiğinde cümleden virgülle ayrılır.
- She is certainly the best person for the job.
- You obviously enjoyed your meal.
- He definitely left the house this morning.
- He is probably in the park.
- Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.
- RESTRICTING Adverbs: Sıfat ve/veya yüklemi niteleyen bu zarflar genellikle niteledikleri sıfatlardan önce yüklemlerdense sonra gelirler.
- Hair is found exclusively/only in mammals.
- Is success simply a matter of working hard?
- You are solely responsible for what happened.
- His work is purely
- Adverbs of DEGREE/INTENSIFIERS: Sıfat, yüklem veya bir başka zarfı nitelerler ve iş veya sıfatın yoğunluk ve derecesini belirtirler. Sorusu to what extent? Bazı yaygın derece zarflar: Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely, virtually, approximately
Position: Genellikle niteledikleri sıfat, zarftan ve yüklemden önce gelirler.
- He was just She has almost finished.
- She doesn't quite know what she'll do after university.
- They are completely exhausted from the trip.
- I am too tired to go out tonight.
- He hardly noticed what she was saying. The water was extremely
NOTE 1: Enough nitelediği sıfat veya zarftan sonra gelir. Ancak bir determiner olarak nitelediği isimden önce gelir.
- Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)
- He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)
- They don't have enough food. (noun)
“Intensifier”lar kendi aralarında üç grupta toplanabilirler: Emphasizers, amplifiers ve dowtowners
- Emphasizers: Kesinlikle, bariz bir şekilde anlamlarına gelirler. Certainty Adverblerin bir kısmı bunları oluşturur: definitely, certainly, actually, clearly, obviously
- He will definitely reject your offer.
a)Tamamıyla anlamına gelirler: absolutely, completely, entirely, extremely, fuly, perfectly, quite, thoroughly, totally, utterly
- I quite/completely/thoroughly forgot about her birthday.
- She entirely/fully/totally/utterly agrees with me.
- b) oldukça, epey, büyük oranda, derin-şiddetli bir oranda anlamlarına gelirler. Olayın şiddetinin oldukça fazla olduğunu gösterirler: badly, bitterly, deeply, enormously, far, greatly, highly, immensely, intensely, much, well, severely, a great deal, lot, by far, very
- The singer is immensely/very popular among young people.
- She was bitterly
- The results far exceeded my expectations.
- I much prefer the old methods.
- a) hayli, epey, oldukça anlamlarına gelirler. Olağanüstü bir durumu yansıtmaktan ziyade mükemmelden biraz aşağıyı göstermek için kullanılırlar.: kind of, quite, fairly, rather, pretty
- I quite enjoyed the party, but I have been to better ones.
- I rather like him.
- Her French is pretty She can also speak English fairly well.
- I am kind of
- b) biraz, orta seviyede, kısmen, bir derece, bir nebze anlamlarına gelir. Vasatı ifade için kullanılır. moderateiy, partially, parlty, slightly, somewhat, to some extent
- Your incident somewhat influenced his later life.
- You are responsible for it to some extent. (to some extent cümle sonunda kullanılır)
- c) yaklaşık olarak, neredeyse, hemen hemen:: almost, nearly, approximately, virtually, all but
- He almost fell down.
- It is virtually impossible for her to finish her project before the term ends.
- She has all but finished her work.
- d) hiç, hemen hiç, çok nadiren: hardly, little, scarcely, barely
- I hardly ever/seldom/rarely go to the theatre.
- She plays barely/hardly/scarcely well enough.
- Little did they know that we were watching them. (inverted)
- FOCUSING Adverbs: Sıfat ve/veya zarfları nitelerler. Niteledikleri sıfat ve zarflardan önce gelirler. Cümleye çoğunlukla “özellikle, hususan” veya “daha ziyade” diye çevrilebilen bir anlam katarlar: notably, especially, particularly, predominantly ve mostly, chiefly, mainly, primarily
- We talked mostly about me.
- Some people, notably his colleagues, had learned to ignore his moods.
- The population of this island is predominantly
- This song is popular particularly/especially among young people.
Connecting Adverbs also consequently furthermore hence however moreover nevertheless otherwise therefore thus
- CONNECTING Adverbs: Bazıları iki ayrı cümleyi bağlayıp bir cümlede yazmaya yarayan bağlaçları da zarf içerisinde incelerler. Aşağıda bulunan herbir cümle iki ayrı cümle şeklinde de yazılabilir.
- If they start smoking those awful cigars, then I'm not staying.
- We've told the landlord about this ceiling again and again, and yet he's done nothing to fix it.
- Jose has spent years preparing for this event; nevertheless, he's the most nervous person here.
- I love this school; however, I don't think I can afford the tuition.
- RELATIVE Adverbs: Sıfat cümlecikleri (relative clause) olarak kullanılan bazı cümlelerin başına gelirler. Kendilerinden sonra cümle gelir (asla yüklem gelmez): where, why, when
- My entire family now worships in the church where my great grandfather used to be minister. (where = at/in which)
- My favorite month is always February, when we celebrate Valentine's Day and Presidents' Day. (when = on which)
- Do you know the reason why Isabel isn't in class today? (why = for which, but could replace the whole phrase 'the reason for which')
- INTERROGATIVE Adverbs: Soru zarfları cümle başında yer alırlar: why, where, how, when
- Why are you so late?
- Where is my passport?
- How are you?
- When does the train arrive?
How soru zarfı önlerine gelerek sıfat ve zarf niteleyicisi olarak da kullanılır.
- How tall are you? (how+adj)
How old is your house?
- How much are these tomatoes? (how+determiner)
How many people are coming to the party?
- How quickly can you read this? (how+adv)
How often do you go to London?
- Adverbial Phrases of PURPOSE: Amaç belirten ifadelerdir. Cümle sonunda yer alırlar: to do ST, in order to ST, so as to do ST
- She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
- She shops in several stores so as to get the best buys.
- We waited patiently outside the theatre all afternoon in order to buy tickets.
SOME SPECIAL STATUS
- RATHER, QUITE and FAIRLY
Aynı anlama geliyor gibi gözükseler de bu zarfların arasında anlam ve kulanım farkı mevcuttur. Rather çoğunlukla negatif fairly ne quite ise pozitif sıfatlarla kullanılır:
- Bill is fairly clever, but Jack is rather
- The history exam was fairly easy, but the English exam was rather
Fairly negative bir sıfatla kullanıldığında pozitif bir çağrışım yapar.
- It is rather cold today. (But I want it to be warm)
- It is fairly cold today. (This temperature is very suitable for our experiment)
Pozitif sıfatlarda kullanıldığında rather sıklıkla şaşkınlık, beklenmezlik ifade eder:
- Your results are rather good – better than I expected.
Bazı rather kullanımları:
- The exam was rather (with negative adj)
- I rather like raw fish. (with some verbs)
- Bill earns rather more money than his father. (modifies comparative forms)
- It is rather a pity. (with some nouns)
- It is rather an interesting book / a rather interesting book. (with adj+N)
- The parents should be blamed rather than the children. (in the sense of a great degree)
- Those shoes are rather too (before too)
- You can speak rather (with positive adv/adj) (=I don’t expect you to speak so well.)
Bazı quite kullanımları:
- Lucy lives quite near to me. (with positive adj)
- It is quite You’d better wear your coat. (with negative adj)
- We can walk quite quickly now. (with adv)
- Mr Smith is quite an expert mechanic. (not a quite expert mechanic)
- She was quite different from what I expected. (=completely different)
- It is quite the worst play I’ve ever seen. (with superlative forms)
- SO, SUCH
- 1. Sıfat ve zarflarla kullanılır (so+adj/adv). Gruptan sonra sıklıkla that clause
- The meal was so good! (It was worth the money.)
- The meal was so good (that) we decided to have dinner at the same restaurant again tonight.
- He paints so well! (I am sure he is going to become a famous artist.)
- He paints so well (that) they offered him a scholarship at an art school in Paris.
- so +few/many+çoğul isim ve so+much/little+sayılamayan isim
- I never knew you had so many brothers!
- I never knew you had so many brothers (that) you had to share a bedroom.
- She has so few friends! (It's really quite sad.)
- She has so few friends (that) she rarely gets out of the house.
- Jake earns so much money! (And he still has trouble paying the rent.)
- Jake earns so much money (that) he has lost all sense of what a dollar is worth.
- They have so little food! (We need to do something to help them.)
- They have so little food (that) they are starving to death.
- so+adj+a noun
- She is so beautiful a woman that everybody admires her.
- Bazen kısa cevaplarda yes yerine so deriz. Söz söylendiği anda o işin doğru olduğunu anladığımızda veya bir hayret durumunda kullanırız.
- “Your bike has been moved.” “So it has. I wonder who did it”
- “Jack and Martha are here.” “So they are.”
- Aynı yapı bazı yüklemlerle kullanıldığında o sözün söylenmeden önce bilindiğini vurgulamak için kullanılır: appear, believe, gather, hear, say, seem, tell, understand
- “The factory is going to close.” “So I understand.”
- “I found that lecture really boring” “So I gather.”
- Bazen yinelemek yerine bir sıfatın, bir zarfın veya tüm bir cümlenin yerine cümle sonunda bir SO kullanırız:
- The workers were angry and they had been every right to be so. (=angry)
- John took the work seriously and Petra perhaps even more so. (=seriously)
- Bob should be the new director. At least I think so. (=that he should be the new manager)
- İsimlerden önce kullanılır (such+noun) (this/that type of) anlamı kadar.
- The archaeologist had never seen such writing before he discovered the tablet.
- She usually doesn't receive such criticism.
- Frank has never made such mistakes
- sıfat+isim (such+adj+N) grubundan önce kullanılır. Bu yapı sıklıkla that clause alır. Tekil isimlerden önce a article eklenmelidir.
- Don has such a big house! (I think it's a little ridiculous.)
- Don has such a big house (that) I actually got lost on the way to the bathroom.
- Shelly has such beautiful eyes! (I have never seen that shade of blue before.)
- Shelly has such beautiful eyes (that) she got a job as a make-up model.
MAKING COMPARISONS (Kıyaslama Yapmak)
Genel olarak comparative ve superlative adverb kuralları adjective’lerde olduğu gibidir.
Kısa zarflara -er veya -est ekleriz:
- Jim works harder than his brother.
- Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.
-ly ile bitenlere comparative için more ve superlative için most ekleriz:
- The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.
- Could you sing more quietly please?
Adverb Comparative Superlative badly
- The little boy ran further than his friends.
- You're driving worse today than yesterday !
BE CAREFUL! 'most' çok (very) anlamında kullanılmaktadır.
- We were most grateful for your help
- I am most impressed by this application.
- a) olumlularda (as...as)
- Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. However Peter can work as hard as John can.
- b) olumsuzlarda (not as...as)
- My father cannot run as fast as you can.
- c) olumsuzlarda (not so...as)
- My father cannot run so fast as you can.
DE DA (dahi anlamında)
Also: Olumlu veya olumsuz, genellikle mid-position
- She likes chocolate. I also like chocolate.
Too/as well: Cümle sonunda, sadece olumlularda. Iki virgull arasında taşınabilir.
- She likes chocolate. I like chocolate, too/as well.
- She likes chocolate. I, too, like chocolate.
Either: Cümle sonunda, sadece olumsuzlarda.
- She doesn’t like chocolate. I don’t like, either.
So do I: Olumlularda, yardımcı fiile dikkat.
- She can fly, and so can I.
- She write well,and so does Michael.
Meither/nor do I: Olumsuzlarda, yardımcı file dikkat.
- I am not a doctor,and neither/nor is my wife.
- I cannot fly, and neither/nor can you.
 “Bisikletini götürmüşler.” “Aa, doğru. (Sen söyleyince fark ettim) Kim götürdü acaba?”
 “Jack ile Martha burada” “Hımm Hakikaten” (Sen söyleyince gördüm)
 “Fabrika kapanacak. “Ben zaten anlamıştım”
 “Dersi çok sıkıcı buldum.” “Ben zaten anlamıştım.”
 Asla olumlularda kullanılmaz.
- RELATIVE CLAUSE