1. Contrast
  2. Direct Opposition
  • Ali worked hard. On the other hand/In contrast/ However, Okan hardly did any work at all.
  • Metin is lazy. However, his brother is quite diligent (=hard working).
  • George is an optimist. In contrast/However/, Bill is a pessimist.
  • Extroverts love crowds. In contrast, introverts prefer solitude.
  • Six is more than five; conversely, five is less than six.
  1. Denial of Expectation (Unexpected result)
  • She studied diligently for several months. Nevertheless/However/Yet/Nonetheless, she failed.
  • George is very handsome. Yet, he is not popular with girls.
  • My uncle is 70 years old now. Nonetheless, he maintains his interest in legal matters.
  • It's raining. Even so, we must go out.
  1. Result
  • He passed his exams. Therefore/Thus/Hence/Accordingly/Consequently, he had some good news to tell his parents.
  • Professor Brown is an outstanding scientist. Hence, he is highly respected.
  • He has been studying hard for a long time. Thus, he has made considerable progress.
  • He lacks self-confidence. As a consequence, he is unlikely to be successful.
  • The demand has increased sharply. Accordingly, the prices are higher now.
  1. Addition and Listing
  • Aykut plays football. Moreover/ Besides/ Also, he runs a restaurant.
  • Necla writes short stories, in addition, she writes articles for a newspaper.
  • To prepare his homework, Jack went through various history books. Furthermore, he took notes from several encyclopedias.
  • During her spare time, Ayla practices the piano; in addition, she plays the vio­lin.
  • I prefer to buy fruits and vegetables in the open market because they are quite cheap there. Besides, they are much fresher than fruits and vegetables sold at the greengrocers'.
  • Living in a big city offers good job opportunities. Also, it provides good educa­tional opportunities.
  • All docs not have a gift for music. Moreover, he lacks motivation to practice music. Therefore, he can't become a good musician.
  • Owning a car has some advantages. First (First of all/Firstly/ To begin with), it gives you comfort. Secondly, it saves you a lot of time. Thirdly, it gives you great freedom of movement.


  1. Time
  • I read the morning papers for a while. Afterwards, I took a shower.
  • First pick up the receiver and then insert a coin into the coin-box.
  • At first, I had great difficulty with grammar Later, however , I was able to overcome these difficulties by studying hard.
  • The party is Tuesday, but in the meantime I have to shop and prepare the food.
  • They'll be here soon. Meanwhile, let's have coffee.
  1. Exemplification
  • Women generally live longer than men. For instance, in the United States life expectancy for women is 75, while it is 73 for men.
  • Earthquakes can be highly destructive. To illustrate, the earthquake which occurred in Erzincan in 1939 devastated the whole town, killing more than 35,000 people.
  1. Particularization

in particular      particularly      specifically

  • Shopping in small markets is quite advantageous. In particular, one can find specialty items that larger stores do not contain.
  • We still needed to arrange several details for the trip. Specifically, we had to make plane and train reservations as well as decide on the final itinerary.
  1. Explanation

that is       namely        in other words     that is to say

  • The brochure dealt with travelling in Morocco. That is/In other words/ Namely, it discussed transportation, currency, and language.
  • The machinery was not impaired; that is, it wasn't damaged.
  • Good readers should be able to read between the lines; that is, they should be able to make inferences (=to draw conclusions) about information that is conveyed indirectly or given only partially.
  • There is only one topic to discuss, namely, the question of discipline.
  • As a child grows up, he learns how to behave in ways which are appropriate to the society into which he is born. That is to say, he acquires the patterns of behavior which are accepted as normal in his society.
  1. Similarity

likewise    similarly     correspondingly    by the same token    in the same way

  • Men must wear a jacket and a tie; similarly, women must wear a skirt or a dress, not trousers.
  • She was late and I similarly was delayed.
  • You can't teach navigation in the middle of a storm. Likewise, you can't build a system of values in the current educational climate.
  1. Emphasis

in fact    indeed    as a matter of fact    actually

  • He is quite wealthy. In fact, he is one of the richest men in Turkey.
  • I like reading. As a matter of fact, it is my favorite pastime.
  • Mural is a highly talented musician. Indeed, he has an extraordinary gift for music.

  1. Refutation

on the contrary

  • She is not ugly. On the contrary, she is a good-looking girl.
  • I don't hate classical music. On the contrary, I'm very fond of it.
  1. Reformulation

in other words           to put it in a different way,   put differently

  • He is a conservative. In other words, he favors the preservation of old institutions in their original form.
  • Is there a cheaper solution? In other words, can you make a cheaper device?
  1. Correction

rather   to be more precise

  • He is enjoying himself. Rather, he seems to be enjoying himself.
  • This system must be improved. Rather, it must be thoroughly changed.
  • Her name is not Margeret. Rather, it is Margot.
  1. Transition

as for                 as to                with regard to                      with respect to

as regards         regarding           as far as X is concerned

  • Both Orkun and Ozkan are my friends. Orkun studies law at Ankara University. As for Ozkan, he studies mechanical engineering at METU.
  • As far as comfort is concerned, a car is definitely much better than a bicycle. On the other hand, with respect to convenience, it is difficult to say the same thing.
  • METU and ITU are similar in several respects (=ways). First, they are both technical universities. Secondly, they are alike as regards the courses offered.
  • Sony, which is $550, is much more expensive than Grundig, which is $440. However, as far as quality is concerned (With regard to/ As regards quality), the former is far better than the latter.
  1. Alternative
  • You're welcome to come with us now in our car. Alternatively, you could go later with Mary.
  1. Negative Condition

or else           otherwise

  • I must leave now, or else I'll be late.
  • You must study hard. Otherwise, you may fail.
  1. Summation/ Conclusion

in summary       in brief        in short        in conclusion to be brief        to sum up     all in all

  • This is our most disastrous and embarrassing defeat ever; in short, it is a fiasco.
  • The system lacked originality, efficiency and ingenuity. In conclusion, it was a complete failure.

  1. Other Sentence Connectors

after all: considering all the factors in the situation

  • I don't think he should be punished for breaking the window. After all, he's only five years old.

incidentally/by the way (used to introduce an additional point that the speaker has just thought of)

  • Some people, and incidentally that includes Robert, just won't look after themselves properly.

 above all (=more than anything else)

  • He misses all of us, but he longs above all to see his family again.

all the same: even so, nevertheless, in any case,

  •  I like him; all the same, I don't trust him

 anyway, anyhow, in any case

  • I wasn't asked; anyway/anyhow/in any case, I wasn't keen to go.

 instead (used to indicate contrast)

  • Mary did not answer. Instead she looked out of the taxi window.


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