THE PASSIVE VOICE
1) Edilgen bir yapıda her zaman bir be yüklemi ve bir V3 yer alır. Be yüklemi present yapılarda: am/is/are, past yapılarda was/were, perfect yapılarda been, continuous yapılarda bunlara ilaveten +being olur.
|TENSE / VERB||ACTIVE VOICE||PASSIVE VOICE|
|Simple present||He paints the house every year.||The house is painted every year.|
|Simple past||He painted the house last week.||The house was painted last week.|
|Simple future Modals||He will paint the house next year.He can paint the house easily.||The house will be painted next year.The house can be painted easily.|
|Present continuous||He is painting the house now.||The house is being painted now.|
|Past continuous||He was painting the house yesterday.||The house was being painted yesterday.|
|Present perfect Past perfect
|He has painted the house recently.He had painted the house before I came.
He will have painted the house by next week.
He should have painted the house last year.
|The house has been painted recently.The house had been painted before I came.
The house will have been painted by next week.
The house should have been painted last year.
|present infinitive[to paint]||He has to paint the house.He wants us to paint the house right now.||The house has to be painted.He wants the house to be painted right now.|
|perfect infinitive [to have painted ]||He is said to have painted the house last year.||The house is said to have been painted last year.|
|present participle/gerund [painting]||I am used to painting the house.||The house is used to being painted.|
|perfect participle[having invited]||He remembers that somebody invited him to the party last month.||He remembers having been invited to the party last month.|
- Active: I keep the butter in the fridge. Passive: The butter is kept in the fridge.
- Active: They stole the painting. Passive: The painting was stolen.
- Active: They are repairing the road. Passive: The road is being repaired.
- Active: Shakespeare wrote Passive: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
- Active: A dog bit Passive: He was bitten by a dog.
NOTE: İngilizce’de present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future continuous ve future perfect continuous için edilgen yapı hemen hiç kullanılmaz. Ancak karşımıza çıkmış olsaydı:
- The house will be being cleaned tomorrow. [future continuous]
- The house has been being cleaned for five hours. [present perfect continuous]
- The house had been being cleaned for five hours before you entered. [past perfect continuous]
- The house will have been being cleaned for five hours by three o’clock. [fut. perfect continuous]
2) Eylemi yapan kişi yada şeyi belirtmek istediğimizde onu cümleye by preposition’u ekleriz.
- "A Hard Day's Night" was written by the Beatles.
- ET was directed by Spielberg
3) İngilizce’de bazı yapılar devamlı edilgen kullanılırlar. Bunlar dilimizde etken olarak ifade edilmektedir.
- I was born in 1975. (1975’te doğdum)
- Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week. (Bu hastanede her hafta yaklaşık 100 bebek doğar)
4) to infinitive [to V1] ve bare infinitive [V1], to be V3 ve be V3 formatına sokulur.
|EDİLGEN CÜMLE||ETKEN CÜMLE|
|You have to be tested on your English grammar.||You have to test me on my English grammar.|
|John might be promoted next year.||John might promote Jack next year.|
|She wants to be invited to the party.||She wants to invite us to the party.|
5) gerund veya –ing form [Ving], being V3 formatına sokulur.
|Most film stars hate being interviewed.||Most film stars hate interviewing.|
|I remember being taught to drive.||I remember teaching to drive.|
|The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.||The children are excited about taking us to the zoo.|
Bazen edilgen mana vermek için be+V3 yerine get+V3 kullanırız. Get ani ve beklenmedik olaylarda tercih edilir, action belirten yüklemlerle kullanılır, state belirten yüklemlerle kullanılmaz.
- He got arrested for dangerous driving. (Tehlikeli araba kullanmaktan dolayı tutuklandı)
- I don’t often get invited to the parties. (Partilere sık davet edilmem.)
- I'm not sure how the window got broken. (Pencerenin nasıl kırıldığından emin değilim)
- Jill is liked by everybody. (not Jill gets liked by everybody)
NOTE: Bu yapı aktif cümle anlamına gelecek şekilde de kullanılır; bazen sadece öyle kalıplaşmış olduğundan, bazense beklenmezlik anlamı verdiği veya aniden gerçekleştiğinden GET ile kullanılır.
- The little boy got lost in the park. (Küçük çocuk parkta kayboldu.)
- They’re getting married later this year. (Bu yılın sonuna doğru evlenecekler)
- Get divorced= boşanmak get dressed= giyinmek get changed= üstünü değiş(tir)mek
NEED + Ving
Need yüklemi ardından Ving alınca anlam edilgen olur.
- The ceiling needs painting (= The ceiling needs to be painted.)
- My hair needs cutting (= My hair needs to be cut.)
HAVE ST V3
1) İstenmeyen bir eylemin gerçekleştiğini belirtmek için have ST done kalıbını kullanabiliriz. Burada mana pasiftir ve eylemi yapan özne konumundaki kişi veya şey değildir. Aksine bunlar eylemden etkilenene nesnenin sahibi durumundadırlar:
- Jim had his car stolen last night. (= Jim's car was stolen)
- They had their roof blown off in the storm. (= Their roof was blown off in the storm)
ÇİFT NESNE ALAN YÜKLEMLERIN PASİFLERİ
İngilizce’de bazı yüklemler dolaylı ve dolaysız (indirect and direct) olmak üzere iki nesne alabilirler. Her iki nesne de başa çekilerek pasif yapılabilir:
- They gave him a lot of presents.
- He was given a lot of presents.
- A lot of presents were given to him.
IT’S SAID etc. THAT…
acknowledge believe declare fear know report suspect
allege claim estimate feel project say think
assume consider expect find prove suppose understand
Yukarıdaki yüklemlerden sonra that clause geliyorsa bu cümlelerin iki ayrı pasif şekli olur. İlki It is said that… şeklinde başlayandır. Diğeri ise şöyle yapılır:
- That clause’daki özne başa, yani it zamirinin yerine getirilir.
- It zamirinin yüklemi yeni özneye göre çekimlenir.
- That zamiri kaldırılır, that-clause yüklemi to V1 biçimine getirilir.
Kalıp ve örnek cümleler aşağıda verilmiştir.
- a) Ana cümle ve that clause eş zamanlıysa:
|It is said that SB does ST.SB is said to do ST.||It is believed that he lives in London.He is believed to live in London.|
|It was said that SB did ST.SB was said to do ST.||It was believed that he lived in London.He was believed to live in London.|
|It is said that SB is ST.SB is said to be ST.||It is thought that you are a doctor.You are thought to be a doctor.|
|It was said that SB was ST.SB was said to be ST.||It was thought that you are a doctor.You were thought to be a doctor.|
- b) That clause simple future veya modal almışsa.
|It is said that SB will do ST.SB is said to do ST.||It is expected that they will settle in London.They are expected to settle in London.|
|It was said that SB would do ST.SB was said to do ST.||It was expected that they would settle in London.They were expected to settle in London.|
|It is said that SB can do ST.SB is said to be able to do ST. (ability ise)||It is believed that you can win the race.You are believed to be able to win the race.|
- c) Ana cümle ve that clause eş zamanlı ve that clause continuous ise:
|It is said that SB is doing ST.SB is said to be doing ST.||It is reported that he is making a rapid recovery.He is reported to be making a rapid recovery.|
|It was said that SB was doing ST.SB was said to be doing ST.||It was reported that he was making a rapid recovery.He was reported to be making a rapid recovery.|
- d) that clause’un zamanı ana cümleninkinden daha önce ise:
|It is said that SB did ST.SB is said to have done doing ST.||It is said that he lived in London in his youth.He is said to have lived in London in his youth.|
|It is said that SB has done ST.SB is said to have done doing ST.||It is said that he has lived in London for a long time.He is said to have lived in London for a long time.|
|It was said that SB had done ST.SB was said to have done doing ST.||It was said that he had lived in London for a long time.He was said to have lived in London for a long time.|
|It is said that SB was ST.SB is said to have been ST.||It is understood that your mother was a judge.Your mother was understood to have been a judge.|
|It was said that SB had been ST.SB was said to have been ST.||It was known that your mother had been a judge.Your mother was known to have been a judge.|
- e) that clause’un zamanı ana cümleninkinden daha önce ve continuous ise:
|It is said that SB was doing ST.SB is said to have been doing ST.||It is known that you were dancing with that boy last night.You are known to have been dancing with that boy last night.|
|It is said that SB has been doing ST.SB is said to have been doing ST.||It is said that he has been living in London for a long time.He is said to have been living in London for a long time.|
|It was said that SB had been doing ST.SB was said to have been doing ST.||It was said that he had been living in London for a long time.He was said to have been living in London for a long time.|
Görüldüğü gibi eş zamanlılarda ilk fiil to infinitive (to V1) yapılıyor, farklı zamanlılarda perfect infinitive (to have V3). İlk fiil yardımcı fiilse to infinitive olan bu yardımcı fiil oluyor.
am/is/are/was/were eşzamanlı to be
was/were önceki zaman to have been
has/have/had eşzamanlı to have
has/have/had önceki zaman to have